Files with .EPUB extension are an e-book file format that provide a standard digital publication format for publishers and consumers. The format has been so common by now that it is supported by many e-readers and software applications. For example, on Mac OS, the pre-installed Books software provides the support for opening such files. In addition, there are a lot of compatible software available for smartphones, tablets and computers.
Portable Document Format (PDF) is a type of document created by Adobe back in 1990s. The purpose of this file format was to introduce a standard for representation of documents and other reference material in a format that is independent of application software, hardware as well as Operating System. PDF files can be opened in Adobe Acrobat Reader/Writer as well in most modern browsers like Chrome, Safari, Firefox via extensions/plug-ins.
You can also convert EPUB into many other file formats. Please see the complete list below.