Files with DWG extension represent proprietary binary files used for containing 2D and 3D design data. Like DXF, which are ASCII files, DWG represents the binary file format for CAD (Computer Aided Design) drawings. It contains a vector image and metadata for the representation of the contents of CAD files.
Portable Document Format (PDF) is a type of document created by Adobe back in 1990s. The purpose of this file format was to introduce a standard for representation of documents and other reference material in a format that is independent of application software, hardware as well as Operating System. PDF files can be opened in Adobe Acrobat Reader/Writer as well in most modern browsers like Chrome, Safari, Firefox via extensions/plug-ins.
You can also convert DWG into many other file formats. Please see the complete list below.